Abstract

This variable contains anthropometric information which can be used as an indicator for human health and welfare in 165 countries spanning the period 1810-1989, and a smaller number of countries 1500-1800

Author(s)

Baten, Joerg, University of Tuebingen.; Blum, Mathias, Technical University Munich (formerly University of Tuebingen)

Production date

2013-12-26

Variable(s)

Male height equivalent in cm

Keywords

Height, Anthropometrics, Living Standard

Time period

1500 -1980. All data refer to the birth decadal average (1810 means 1810-19 etc), except those before 1800, which sometimes refer to half centuries

Geographical coverage

Worldwide

Methodologies used for data collection and processing

Reconstruction of heights by birth decade using a variety of different sources. See also the text below

Period of collection

See references

Data collectors

Joerg Baten, Mathias Blum, and many colleagues from around the world


As good as possible, but counter-checking and improvement welcome

General references

As almost none of the original height estimates entered the data set unchanged, the general references which should be cited is for the post-1800 period:

Baten, Joerg and Matthias Blum, “Growing Taller, but Unequal: Biological Well-Being in World Regions and Its Determinants, 1810-1989.” Economic History of Developing Regions (forthcoming 2012).

And for the pre-1800 period, the standard reference is

Koepke, Nikola and Baten, Joerg "The Biological Standard of Living in Europe During the Last Two Millennia," in European Review of Economic History 9-1 (2005), pp. 61-95.

As the underlying height data comes from a variety of sources, here is the list for the pre 1800 period:

A’Hearn, B. A. (2003), “Anthropometric Evidence on Living Standards in Northern Italy,1730-1860”, The Journal of Economic History, 63, 2

Baten, Joerg (2013), “Height trends in Peru, 18th century”, Working Paper Univ. Tuebingen.

Baten, J. and M. Blum (2012) “Growing Taller, but Unequal: Biological Well-Being in World Regions and Its Determinants, 1810-1989”, Economic History of Developing Regions 27 (2012), pp.S66-S85

Baten, Joerg (2013b) “Heights in Belgium and the Netherlands during the 18th century: New Estimations”. Working Paper Univ. Tuebingen.

Baten, Joerg and Ricardo Salvatore (1998) "A Most Difficult Case of Estimation: Argentinian Heights, 1770-1840” The Biological Standard of Living in Comparative Perspective. Stuttgart 1998, pp. 90-96

Baten, J., Stegl M. and P. van der Eng “The Biological Standard of Living and Body Height in Colonial and Post-colonial Indonesia, 1770–2000”, Journal of Bioeconomics 15 (2013): 103-122

Camara, Antonio D. (2009) “Long-Term Trends in Height in Rural Eastern Andalusia (1750-1950)”, Historia Agraria, 47, pp. 45-67

Cinnirella, F. (2008): On the Road to Industrialization: The Biological Standard of Living in Saxony, 18th and 19th Century, Cliometrica 2 (3), 229-257

Cinnirella, F. (2008) “Optimists or pessimists? A reconsideration of nutritional status in Britain, 1740–1865”, European Review of Economic History ,12, pp. 325–354

Costa, D. and Richard Steckel (1997) “Health and Welfare during Industrialization”, National Bureau of Economics Research, University of Chicago Press 1997, pp. 50-52

Eltis, David (2013), Database on African slaves http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/database/download.faces , last accessed December 16th, 2013.

Heintel, M., Sandberg, L. S. and Steckel, R. H. (1998), “Swedish Historical Heights Revisited: New Estimation Techniques and Results”, in Komlos and Baten (eds.), The Biological Standard of Living in Comparative Perspective, Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, pp. 449-458.

Komlos, J. (1985) “Stature and Nutrition in the Habsburg Monarchy: the Standard of Living and Economic”, The American Historical Review, 90, 5

Komlos, J. (2003): An anthropometric history of early- modern France, European Review of Economic History, 7, 159-189

Komlos, J. and Francesco Cinnirella (2006): European Heights in the Early 18th Century. Munich Discussion Paper No. 2005-5

Mironov, B. (2005) “The Burden of Grandeur: Physical and Economic Well-Being of the Russian Population in the Eighteenth century” in ALLEN, BENGTSSON and DRIBE (eds.), Living Standards in the Past, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 255-277

Mironov, B. (2012) “The Standard of Living and Revolutions in Imperial Russia, 1700-1917”, Routledge, Abingdon 2012, p.95 and p. 215

Neuss (2008 “Der Biologische Lebensstandard auf Mauritius während des späten 18. Und frühen 19. Jahrhundert”. Unpubilshed Diploma Thesis Univ. Tübingen.

Steffens, Philipp (2008) “Der biologische Lebensstandard afrikanischer Sklaven auf Mauritius“, Tübingen

Salvatore, Ricardo et. al (2010) "Living Standards in Latin American History, Height, Welfare and Development, 1750-2000", David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, p.38

Stolz, Yvonne, Baten, J., Reis J. and (2013) “Portuguese Living Standards 1720-1980 in European Comparison – Heights, Income and Human Capital”, Economic History Review 66-2 (2013), pp. 545-578

As the underlying height data comes from a variety of sources, here is the list for the post 1800 period:

Al-Hourani, Huda M., C. Jeya K. Henry and Helen J. Lightowler. "Prevalence of Overweight Among Adolescent Females in the United Arab Emirates." American Journal of Human Biology 15 (2003): 758-764.

Abdeen, Ziad, Christine Jildeh, Sahar Dkeideek, Radwan Qasrawi, Ibrahim Ghannam and Haleama Al Sabbah. "Overweight and Obesity among Palestinien Adults: Analyses of the Anthropometric Data from the First National Health and Nutrition Survey (FNHANS) 1999-2000." Working Paper.

A'Hearn, Brian. “The Antebellum Puzzle Revisited: A New Look at the Physical Stature of Union Army Recruits during the Civil War.” In The Biological Standard of Living in Comparative Perspective, edited by J. Komlos and J. Baten, 250-267. Stuttgart, 1998.

A'Hearn, Brian. “Anthropometric Evidence on Living Standards in Northern Italy, 1730-1860.”' Journal of Economic History 63 (2003): 351-381.

A'Hearn, Brian. Data set on Italian Conscripts, friendly provided by Brian A'Hearn, on the Background see A'Hearn 2003. (2006)

Abdushelishvili, M. G., V. v. Ginzburg, N. n. Miklashevskaia and T. a. Trofimova. “Contributions to the physical anthropology of central asia and the Caucasus.” Russian Translation Series of the Peabody Museum of Archeology and Ethnology. Harvard University 3 (1968) 2.

Al-Haboubi, Muhammad H.”Discovering a Secular Trend through a Cross-Sectional Study. King Fahd Univ Petroleum Minerals.” Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering 26 (2001): 43-57.

Alter, George, Muriel Neven and Michel Oris. “Stature in Transition: A Micro-level Study from Nineteenth-Century Belgium.” Social Science History 28 (2004) 2: 231-247.

Andrews, James M. “Evolutionary Trends in body build. Data from Thailand (Siam).” In Studies in the Anthropology of Oceania and Asia, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology 20 (1943).

Ashcroft, L., Lovell and Miall. “Heights and Weights of Adults in Rural and Urban Areas of Jamaica.” British Journal of Preventive Social Medicine 20 (1966) 1: 22–26.

Aul, J. “Tartu Riikliku Olikooli Toimetised.” Antropologija estoncev (1964) Tartu.

Aul, J. “Über die Sexualdimorphismus der anthropologischen Merkmale von Schulkindern, Jugendlichen und Erwachsenen.“ Papers on Anthropology VII, University of Tartu, Centre of Physical Anthropology (1997).

Austin, Donald. “Work Capacity and Body Morphology of Bantu and Pygmid Groups of Western Zaire.” Human Biology 51 (1979) 1: 79.

Austin, Gareth, Joerg Baten and Bas van Leeuwen. „The Biological Standard of Living in Early 19th-Century West Africa: New Anthropometric Evidence.” Working Paper LSE/Utrecht/Tuebingen (2007).

Moradi, Alexander, Gareth Austin and Joerg Baten. “Institutions, Policies and Living Standards in Ghana, 1870-1970/2000 - Lessons from Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Body Stature.” Working Paper LSE/Oxford/Tuebingen (2007).

Australian Bureau of Statistics. “How Australians Measure Up.” ABS Cat 4359.0. (1998) Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

Backmann, Gaston. “Die Körperlänge der Letten'.“ Upsala Läkareförenings Förhandlingar (1924) Uppsala.

Bailey, D.A., Carter and Mirwald. “Somatotypes of Canadian Men and Women.” Human Biology 54 (1982) 4: 813.

Bassino, Jean-Pascal. “Data Set on Japanese Student Heights.” Obtained via John Komlos (2009).

Basu, M. “Morphology, Serology, Dermatoglyphics, and Microevolution of some village populations in Haiti, West Indies.” Human Biology 48 (1976) 2: 245.

Basu, M. “Anthropological profile of the Muslims of Calcutta.” Anthropological Survey of India, Govt. of India, Calcutta (1985).

Basu, Amitabha and Ranjan Gupta. “Human Biology of Asian Highland Populations in the Global Context.” In India and World Literature, edited by Abhai Maurya. 1990.

Baten, Joerg. „Ernährung und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung in Bayern, 1730 – 1880.“ Stuttgart, Steiner (1999).

Baten, Joerg. “Data Set on Bavarian conscripts and convicts and Arnsberg conscripts,” http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/wwl/dhheight.html. (2006). On the background of Arnsberg conscripts, see Baten and Fertig 2010.

Baten, Joerg and Scott Carson. “Latin American Anthropometrics, Past and Present– an Overview.” EHB (2010).

Baten, Joerg and Georg Fertig. “Did the Railway Increase Inequality? A Micro-Regional Analysis of Heights in the Hinterland of the Booming Ruhr Area During the Late 19th Century.” Working Paper (2010).

Baten, Joerg, Debin Ma, Stephen Morgan and Qing Wang. „Evolution of living standards and human capital in China in the 18–20th centuries: Evidences from real wages, age-heaping, and anthropometrics.” Explorations in Economic History 47 (2010): 82-97.

Baten, Joerg, Ines Pelger and Linda Twrdek. “The Anthropometric History of Argentina, Brazil and Peru during the 19th and Early 20th Century.” Economics and Human Biology (2010).

Baten, Joerg, Jaime Reis and Yvonne Stolz. “Portuguese Livings Standards 1720-1980 – Heights, Income and Human Capital.” University of Tuebingen Working Paper (2010).

Baten, Joerg, Mojgan Stegl and Pierre van der Eng. “Long Term Changes in the Biological Standard of Living in Indonesia: New Anthropometric Evidence, 1770s-2000s.” University of Tuebingen Working Paper (2009).

Bean, Robert. “Filipino Ears-A Classification of ear types.” The Philippine Journal of Science 4 (1909a) 1.

Bean, Robert. “Filipino Types: Found in Malecon Morgue.” The Philippine Journal of Science 4 (1909b) 1.

Bean, Robert. “Filipino Types: Racial Anatomy in Taytay.” The Philippine Journal of Science 4 (1909c) 1.

Bean, Robert and Frederico Planta. “The Men of Cainta ” The Philippine Journal of Science 4 (1911) 1.

Benoist, J. “Anthropologie physique de la population de l'Ile de la Tortue (Haïti), contribution à l'étude de l'origine des Noirs des Antilles Françaises.” Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris 11 (1962) 3: 315-335.

Benoist, J. “Le gradients écologique du rapport poids/surface chez des groupes d´Israeliens d´origines différentes.” Revue de la Société de Biométrie humaine (1971): 36-45.

Bhasin, M.K. “A genetic study on the Newards of Nepal valley.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 40 (1974) 1: 67-74.

Boldsen, Jesper. “Height Variation in Denmark A.D. 1100-1988.” In Populations of the Nordic Countries, Proceedings of the Second Seminar of Nordic Physical Anthropology, edited by Iregreen, Elisabeth and Rune Liljekvist. Lund, 1990.

Breitinger, Emil. „Körperform und sportliche Leistung Jugendlicher. Körpermasse, sportliche Leistungen und deren korrelative Abhängigkeit bei 3319 Schülern Münchener höherer Lehrveranstaltungen.“ PhD diss., University of Munich, 1934.

Brennan, L., J. MacDonald and R. Shlomowitz. “The Heights and Economic Wellbeing of North Indian under British Rule.” Social Science Histor 18 (1994a): 271-307.

Brennan, L., J. MacDonald and R. Shlomowitz. “Trends in the economic well-being of South Indians under British rule: the anthropometric evidence.”Explorations in Economic History 31 (1994b): 225–260.

Brennan, L., J. MacDonald and R. Shlomowitz. “Towards an anthropometric history of Indian under British rule.” Research in Economic History 17 (1997): 185–246.

Brennan, L., J. MacDonald and R. Shlomowitz. “Change in the stature of North Indians from British rule.“ Jahrbuch fuer Wirtschaftsgeschichte (2000): 129–148.

Brennan, L., J. MacDonald and R. Shlomowitz. “Data Set on Indian Stature,” friendly provided via email (2006). On the Background see Brennan, MacDonald and Shlomowitz 1997.

Brennecke, Theophil. Untersuchungen über Körperlänge, Brustumfang und rechten Oberarmumfang an Stellungspflichtigen des Kantons Basel-Stadt. Basel: Philosophischer Verlag, 1935.

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Annual Survey Data, BRFSS Annual Survey Data, 1995.

Bryn, H. and K. E. Schreiner. „Die Somatologie der Norweger. Nach Untersuchungen an Rekruten.“ Skrifter Utgitt av det norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo (1929).

Büchi, E.G. „Anthropologie des Tibétains.“ École française d'Extême-Orient. Paris (1965): 2-106.

Buxton, L. H. Dudley. “The Anthropology of Cyprus.” The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 50 (1920).

Carson, Scott A. “The Biological Standard of Living in 19th-Century Mexico and in the American West.” Economics and Human Biology 5 (2005) 1: 405-419.

Carson, Scott A. “Mexican body mass index values in the late-19th-century American West.” Economics and Human Biology 5 (2007) 1: 37-47.

Chabeuf, M. “Anthropologie Physique du Moyen-Congo at du Gabon méridional.” Bulletin et Mémoires de la Société d´anthropologie de Paris X Serie 10 (1959) 2: 97-185.

Chabeuf, M. “Les caractères physiques de sept populations malgaches.” Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris 4 (1967) 2: 181 - 208.

Chabeuf, M. “Contribution à l'anthropologie des Vietnamiens méridionaux.” Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris 1 (1969) 2: 155 - 176.

Challu, Amilcar. “Agricultural Crisis and Biological Well-Being in Mexico, 1730-1835.” Historia Agraria 47 (2009): 17-45.

Chalmers, James. “Anthropometrical Observations on Some Natives of the Papuan Gulf.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 27 (1898): 335-342.

Chamla, M. C. “L'accroissement de la stature en France de 1880 à 1960: comparaison avec les pays d'Europe occidentale.” Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris 6 (1964) 2: 201 – 278.

Chamla, M. C. “Variations biométriques avec láge chez des ouvriers algériens.” Biométrie Humaines 7 (1972): 41-55.

Chervin, A. Anthropologie Bolivienne, Tome II. Anthropometrie, Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1907.

Cinnirella, Francesco. “Optimists or pessimists? A reconsideration of nutitional status in Britain, 1740-1865.” European Review of Economic History 12 (2008) 3: 325-354.

Cipriani. Arabi dello Yemen e dell'Higiaz, Firenze: Centro di Studi Coloniali, Archivio per l'antropologia e la etnologia / Società Italiana d'Antropologia e Etnologia, 1939.

Clements, E. M. B. and K. G. Pickett. “Stature and Weight of Men from England and Wales in 1941.” British Journal of Preventive Social Medicine 11 (1957): 51-60.

Cogneau, Denis and Lea Rouanet. Living Conditions in Cote d´Ivoir, Ghana and Western Africa 1925-1985: What Survey Data on Height Stature Tell Us? WP DT, accessed December 2009.

http://www.at ideas.repec.org

Conrad, Julia “Langfristige Entwicklungen des biologischen Lebensstandards auf dem südostasiatischen Festland.“ Unpublished Bachelor thesis, Chair of Economic History, University of Tübingen (2014).

Conradt, I. and R. Virchow. „Tabellarische Übersicht der an Negern des Adeli-Landes ausgeführten Aufnahmen.“ Verhandl. d. Gesellsch. f. Anthrop. (1887): 164-18.

Coon, Carleton S. “Tribes of the Rif.” Peabody Museum of Harvard University (1931).

Coon, Carleton S. “The Mountains of Giants. A Racial and Cultural Study of the North Albanian Mountain Ghegs.” Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology 23 (1974).

Coppola, Michela. “The biological standard of living in Germany before the Kaiserreich, 1815-1840: insights from English army data.” European Review of Economic History 14 (2010) 1: 71-109.

Costa, Dora and Robert Fogel. “Internet Data Collection: Human Stature of Union Army Recruits.” (1998).

http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/wwl/dhheight.html

Costa, Dora and Robert Fogel. “Long-Term Trends in Health, Welfare, and Economic Growth in the United States.” In Health and Welfare during Industrialization, edited by R. Steckel and R. Floud, 47-89. Chicago and London: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1997.

Cranfield, John and Kris Inwood. “The great transformation: A long-run perspective on physical well-being in Canada.” Economics and Human Biology 5 (2007): 204–228.

Crayen, Dorothee. “The Apartheid Puzzle: Did the white living standard decline in times of economic growth?.” University of Tuebingen Working Paper (2006).

Crognier, E. “Données biometriques sur l'état de nutrition d'une population africaine tropicale: les Sara du Tchad.” Biometrie Humaine IV 1 (1967) 2: 27-54.

Czekanowski, J. „Verwandschaftsbeziehungen der zentralafrikanischen Pygmäen. Die anthropologische Stellung der Batwa.“ Korespondentblatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte 16 (1910).

Danubio, Maria E., Elisa Amicone and Rita Vargiu. “Height and BMI of Italian immigrants, to the USA, 1908–1970.”Economics and Human Biology 3 (2005): 33–43.

Dart, Raymond A. “The physical characters of the auni-khomani bushmen.” Bantu Studies 11 (1937): 177.

Davenport, C.B. and Morris Steggerda. “Race Crossing in Jamaica.” Carnegie Institution of Washington (1929).

De Lestrange, M. “Contribution à l'étude de l'anthropologie des Noirs d'A. 0. F. — II. Anthropométrie de 1023 Coniagui, Bassari, Badyaranké et Fulakunda de Guinée française.” Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris 1 (1950) 1: 99 - 136.

Debets, Georgij F. “Physical anthropology of Afghanistan.” Peabody Museum Cambridge (1970).

Demographic and Health Surveys. "Eritrea. Demographic and Health Survey 1995."

“Demographic and Health Surveys.”

http://www.measuredhs.com

Dick, Trevor. “Heights, Nutrition, and Per Capita Income: Canada.” In The biological standard of living on three continents: further explorations in anthropometric history, edited by J. Komlos. Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1995.

Döring, H. „Anthropologisches von der deutschen Togo-Expedition.“ Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 28 (1898).

Drontschilow, Krum. „Beiträge zur Anthropologie der Bulgaren.“ In Archiv fuer Anthropologie, edited by J. Ranke and G. Thilenius, 13 (1914): 43.

Drukker, Jan Willem and M.A. van Meerten. „Beyond Villerme and Quetelet: The Quantitative Relation between Sex- and Age-Specific Hieght and Real Per Capita Income.” In: The Biological Standard of Living on Three Continents: Further Essays in Anthropometric History, edited by John Komlos, 25-57. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995a.

Drukker, Jan Willem and M.A. van Meerten. “The Case of the Shrinking Dutchmen: another Example of the 'Early-Industrial-Growth Puzzle.” In Health and Welfare during Industrialization, edited by R. Steckel and R. Floud, 331-378. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Eickstedt, Egon. „Rassenelemente der Sikh.“ Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 52/53 (1920).

Eickstedt, Egon. „Zur Anthropologie der Garhwali im Himalaya.“ Mitteilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien 16 (1926).

Eltis, David. “Nutritional Trends in Africa and the Americas: Heights of African, 1819-1839.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 12 (1982): 453-475.

Eltis, David. Internet Data Set, friendly provided on his internet page. On the Background, see Eltis 1982.

Erismann, F. „Untersuchungen über die körperliche Entwicklung der Arbeiterbevölkerung in Zentralrussland.“ Archiv für soziale Gesetzgebung 1 (1888): 98-484.

Eurobarometer. “Internet Data Collection: Statistics on Human Stature in Europe.” (1996).

Eveleth, P.B. and J.M. Tanner. Worldwide variation in human growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Facchhini, F. “Body Composition in Central Asia Populations: Fat Patterning Variation in the Kazakhs of the Tien Shan Mountains and the Uighurs of Semericia.” American Journal of Human Biolog 10 (1998): 241–247.

Faulhaber, J. “Anthropometry of living Indians.” In Handbook of Middle American Indians, edited by R. Wauchope, 82-104. Austin: The University of Texas Press, 1970.

Fetter, Vojtech and Karel Hajnis. “Základní Somatomerické Charakteristiky Dospelých Cvicencu II. Celostátní Spartakiády.” Acta Universitatis Carolinae Medica (1962): 13.

Field, Henry. Contributions to the anthropology of the Soviet Union. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1948.

Field, Henry. Contributions to the Anthropology of the Faiyum, Sinai, Sudan, Kenya. Univ. of California Press, 1952.

Field, Henry. ”Contributions to the Anthropology of the Caucasus.” Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University (1953).

Field, Henry. “An anthropological reconnaissance in west Pakistan.” Chicago: Peabody Museum (1955).

Fischer, Eugen. „Die Rehobother Bastards und das Bastardisierungsproblem beim Menschen.“ Anthropologische und ethnografische Studien am Rehobother Bastardvolk in Deutsch-Suedwest-Afrika. Kgl. Preuß. Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1913.

Floud, Roderick. “The Heights of Europeans since 1750: A New Source for European Economic History.” In Stature, Living Standards, and Economic Development. Essays in Anthropometric History, edited by John Komlos, 9-24. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Floud, R. and K. Wachter. “Poverty and Physical Stature: Evidence on the Standard of Living of London Boys 1770-1870.” Social Science History 6 (1982): 422-452.

Floud, Roderick, Kenneth Wachter and Annabel Gregory. Height, Health and History. Nutritional Status in the United Kingdom, 1750-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Floud, Roderick, Kenneth Wachter and Annabel Gregory. Data Set Friendly Provided via the Essex Social Science Data Archive. On the Background see Floud Wachter Gregory 1990.

Fogel, R.W., S. L Engerman and J. Trussell. “Exploring the Uses of Data on Height: The Analysis of Long-Term Trends in Nutrition, Labor Welfare, and Labor Productivity.” Social Science History 6 (1982) 4: 401-421.

Frisancho, Roberto A. “Growth and Morphology at high Altitude.” In: Man in the Andes - A Multidisciplinary Story of High-Altitude Quechua, edited by P. T. Baker and M. A. Little. Stroudsburg: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, 1976.

Fritsch, Gustav D. Die Eingeborenen Süd-Afrikas. Atlas, Breslau, Hirt, 1872.

Fthenakis, W. „Problem der körperlichen und seelischen Akzeleration in Griechenland.“ PhD diss., LMU Muenchen, 1968.

Gaillard, R. and L. Poutrin. Étude anthropologique des populations des régions du Tchad et du Kanem. Extrait des Documents Scientifiques de la Mission Tilho, tome III, Paris, 1914.

Galloway, Alexander. “A contribution to the physical anthropology of the Ovambo.” S. Afr. J. Sci. 34 (1937) 351-364.

Ganguly, Pranab. “Physical Anthropology of the Nicobarese.” Anthropological Survey of India, Government of India, Calcutta, India (1976).

Gillin, John. “The Barama River Caribs of British Guyana.” Papers of the Peabpdy Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology, Harvard University 14 (1967) 2.

Godoy, Ricardo A., Elizabeth Goodman, Richard Levins, Mariana Caram and Craig Seyfried. “Adult male height in an American colony: Puerto Rico and the USA mainland compared, 1886–1955.” Economics and Human Biology 5 (2007): 82–99.

Godoy, Ricardo A., William R. Leonard, Victoria Reyes-García, Elizabeth Goodman, Thomas McDade, Tomás Huanca, Susan Tanner and Vincent Vadez. “Physical stature of adult Tsimane’ Amerindians, Bolivian Amazon in the 20th century.” Economics and Human Biology 4 (2006) 2: 184-205.

Guntupalli, Aravinda Meera and Jörg Baten. “The Development and Inequality of Heights in North, West and East India 1915-44.” Explorations in Economic History 43 (2006) 4: 578-608.

Gyenis, Gyula and Kálmán Joubert. “Socioeconomic determinants of anthropometric trends among Hungarian youth.” Economics and Human Biology 2 (2004): 321–333.

Hagen, B. Anthropologischer Atlas Ostasiatischer und Melanesischer Völker. Wiesbaden, 1898.

Haghdoost, A., A. Mirzazadeh and S. Alikhani. “Secular Trend of Height Variations in Iranian Population Born between 1940 and 1984.” Iranian J Publ Health 37 (2008) 1: 1-7.

Hammel, Eugene A. and A. Gullickson. “Maternal Mortality as an Indicator of the Standard of Living in Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century Slavonia.” In Living Standards in the Past. New Perspectives in Asia and Europe, edited by R. Allen, T. Bengtsson and M. Dribe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Harrison, G. A. “The Effects of Altitudinal variation in Ethiopian Populations.” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, series B, 256 (1969), Biological Sciences.

Hasle, Henrik and Jesper L. Boldsen. “Childhood conditions and adult height.” Journal of Biosocial Science 23 (1991): 107-112.

Hasluck, Margaret M., G. M. Morant. “Measurements of Macedonian Men.” Biometrika 21 (1929): 322-336.

Hatton, Timothy. “A New Dataset on Long Run Trends in the Heights of European Males.” Working Paper ANU (2009).

Hatton, Timothy and B. Bray. “Long Run Trends in the Heights of European Men, 19th-20th Centuries." Economics and Human Biology 8 (2010) 405-413.

Hauschild, M.W. and F. Wagenseil. „Anthropologische Untersuchungen an anatolischen Türken.“ Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie 29 (2007).

Hertzberg, H. T. E. Anthropometric survey of Turkey, Greece and Italy. Pergamon Press, 1963.

Heyberger, Laurent. “Toward an anthropometric history of provincial France, 1780–1920.” Economics and Human Biology 5 (2007): 229–254.

Hiernaux, J. "Luba du Katanga et Luba du Kasai (Congo); comparaison de deux populations de même origine." Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris 6 (1964) 4: 611 - 622.

Hiernaux, J. "Note sur les Tutsi de l'Itombwe." Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris 7 (1965) 4: 361 - 379.

Hiernaux, J. La diversité humaine en Afrique subsaharienne : recherches biologiques, edited by l'Inst. de Sociologie. Bruxelles: Univ. Libre, 1968.

Hiernaux, J. "A Comparison of Growth and Physique in Rural, Urban and Industrial Groups of Similar Ethnic Origin: A Few Case Studies from the Congo and Chad." In Human Biology of environmental Change, edited by D. J. M. Vorster. (1972).

Hildebrandt, J.M. "Einige Körpermasse ostafrikanischer Volksstämme." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie VII (1875a).

Hildebrandt, J.M. "Vorläufige Bemerkungen über die Somal." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie VII (1875b).

Hodinova, Katherina. "Determinanten der fruehen Humankapitalbildung in ost- und mitteleuropaeischen Regionen." Diploma Thesis, University of Tuebingen, 2007.

Hooton, Earnest A. and C. Wesley Dupertuis. "The physical anthropology of Ireland." The Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University (1955).

Hossain, Golam, Pete E. Lestrel and Fumio Ohtsuki. "Secular changes in head dimensions of Japanese adult male students over eight decades." Journal of Comparative Human Biology 55 (2005): 239-250.

Huizinga J. "Human biological observations on some african populations of the thorn Savanna belt I." Proceedings of the koninklijke nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Series C Biological an d medical Series 71 (1968a): 356-390.

Huizinga J. "New physical anthropological evidence bearing on the relationship between Dogon;Kurumba and the extinct west African Tellem populations." Proceedings of the koninklijke nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Series C Biological and medical Series 71 (1968b): 16-30.

Huizinga J. and N.F. Birnie-Teller. "Some anthropometric data on male and female DogonI,II." Proceedings of the koninklijke nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen Series C Biological an d medical Series 69 (1966): 675-695.

Hultkrantz, J.V. "Über die Zunahme der Körpergröße in Schweden in den Jahren 1840 – 1926." Nova acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis extra ord., ed. 4 (1927).

Inwood, Kris, Les Oxley and Evan Roberts. "Physical stature and its interpretation in nineteenth century New Zealand." Australian Economic History Review (2010)

Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense. "Venezuela. Nutrition Survey May-June 1963." Washington, 1963a.

Jäger, U., K. Zellner, K. Kromeyer-Hauschild, R. Lüdde, R. Eisele and J. Hebebrand. "Körperhöhe, Körpergewicht und Body Mass Index bei deutschen Wehrpflichtigen. Historischer Rückblick und aktueller Stand." Anthropologischer Anzeiger 59 (2001) 3: 251-273.

Janghorbani, M., M. Amini, W. C. Willett, M. M. Gouya, A. Delavari, S. Alikhani and A. Mahdavi. "First Nationwide Survey of Prevalence of Overweight, Underweight, and Abdominal Obesity in Iranian Adults." Obesity 15 (2007): 2797–2808. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.332.

Jantz, Richard L., Erin H. Kimmerle and Jose Pablo Baraybar. "Sexing and Stature Estimation Criteria for Balkan Populations." Journal of Forensic Science 53 (2008) 3.

Jarcho, A. "Die Altersveränderungen der Rassenmerkmale bei den Erwachsenen." Anthropologischer Anzeiger XII (1935).

Jayasekara, Rohan et al. "Adolescent Growth in Stature among Sinhalese Males: Preliminary Results of a Cross-Sectional Study." Human Biology 60 (1988) 6: 825.

Johnson, T.O. "Height and Weight Patterns of an Urban African Population Sample in Nigeria." Tropical and Geographical Medicine 22 (1970): 65-76.

Jordán, José R. Desarrollo Humano en Cuba. Instituto de la Infancia, La Habana. 1979.

Joyce, T.A. "Note on the Physical Anthropology of the Pamirs and Amu-Daria Basin." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 56 (1926): 105-133.

Jürgens, H.W. "Examination of the physical development of Tanzanian youth." Anthropological Institute, IFO-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Afrika-Studienstelle, Kiel. 1967.

Kac, Gilberto and Ricardo Ventura Santos. "Secular trend in height in enlisted men and recruits from the Brazilian Navy born from 1970 to 1977." Cad. Saúde Públ, Rio de Janeiro 13 (1997) 3: 479-487.

Kajanoja, Pauli. "A Study in the Morphology of the Finns and ist relation to the settlement of Finland." Annales Academiae Scientarum, Series A, V. Medica 146 (1971).

Kajava, Y. "Rasseneigenschaften der Lappen Finlands; Suomalaisen Tiedeakatemian Toimituksia." Annales Academie Scientiarum Fennicae 25 (1927).

Kemsley, W. F. F. "Weight and Height of a Population in 1943." Annals of eugenics 15 (1951): 161-183.

Kiil, Vilhelm. Stature and Growth of Norwegian Men during the Past Two Hundred Years. Oslo, 1939.

Kimura, Kunihiko. "Studies on Growth and Development in Japan." Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 27 (1984): 179-214.

Kumra, Mitsuhiko. "Standards of Living in Colonial Korea: Did the Masses Become Worse Off or Better Off Under Japanese Rule?." Journal of Econ. History 53 (1993) 3: 629-652.

Kirchengast, Sylvia, Eike-Meinrad Winkler. "Differential Reproductive Success and Body Dimensions in Kavango Males from Urban and Rural Areas in Northern Namibia." Human Biology 67 (1995) 2: 291.

Komlos, John. "Stature and Nutrition in the Habsburg Monarchy: The Standard of Living and Economic Development in the Eighteenth Century." The American Historical Review 90 (1985) 5: 1149-1161.

Komlos, John. Nutrition and Economic Development in the Eighteenth-Century Habsburg Monarchy: An Anthropometric History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989.

Komlos, John. "Data Set on Georgia Convicts." (2006). On the Background see Komlos Coclanis 1997.

http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/wwl/dhheight.html

Komlos, John. "Data Set on Habsburg Empire Heights." (2008a).

Komlos, John. "Anthropometric evidence on economic growth, biological well-being and regional convergence in the Habsburg Monarchy, c. 1850–1910." Cliometrica (2008).

DOI 10.1007/s11698-007-0013-5

Komlos, John."Recent Trends." Working Paper Munich (2009). [allows to calculate average of White and Black].

Komlos, J., P. Coclanis. "On the Puzzling Cycle in the Biological Standard of Living: The Case of Antebellum Georgia." Explorations in Economic History 34 (1997) 4: 433-459.

Kopczyński, Michał. "Agrarian reforms, agrarian crisis and the biological standard of living in Poland, 1844–1892." Economics & Human Biology 5 (2007) 3: 458-470.

Kopczyński, Michał. "Data Collection on Polish Stature: Provided by Friendly Email Communication." (2009). On the Background, see Kopczy´nski 2007.

Korean Research Institute of Standard and Science. "The National Anthropometric Survey of Korea 2003."

Accessed January 16, 2009.

http://sizekorea.kats.go.kr

Krämer, Augustin. "Zwei sehr kleine Pygmäenschädel von Neuguinean und meine Messungen an Buschmännern in Südafrika 1906." In Archiv für Anthropologie 13, edited by J. Ranke and G. Thilenius. 1915.

Kues, Arne Benjamin. "Essays in Anthropometric History." Inaugural-Dissertation, 2007.

Lai, E.S. and C. L. Yaung. "A survey of growth and sexual development of adolescent students in Changua City. Growth of body height and weight." Proceedings of the National Science Council, Republic of China/ Part B, Life sciences (1987).

Laing, J.G.D. "A height/weight table for African Mine Labourers." Journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy (1964).

Lalouel, J. "Les Babinga du Bas-Oubangi." Bulletin et Memoires des la Société d'anthropologique de Paris 1 (1950): 60-98.

Laska-Mierzejewska, T. "Morphological and Developmental Difference Between Negro and White Cuban Youths." Human Biology 42 (1970) 4: 581.

Latham, M. C., L. S. Stephenson, A. Hall, J. C. Wolgemuth, T. C. Eliottl and D.W.T. Cromuton. "Parasitic infections, anaemia and nuritional status: a study of their interrelationships and the effect of prophylaxis and treatment on workers in Kwale District, Kenya." Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 17 (1983): 41-48.

Lebzelter, V. "Beiträge zur physischen Anthropologie der Balkanhalbinsel; 1. Teil." Mitteilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien 53 (1923).

Lee, Sang-Do. "A study of the differences and characteristics between the nations, in the measured values of the human body and the working area." International Journal of Production Research 1978 16 (1978) 4: 335 - 347.

Leys, Norman M. and T. A. Joyce. "Note on a Series of Physical Measurements from East Africa." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 43 (1913): 195-267.

Lintsi M., L. Saluste, H. Kaarma, S. Koskel, A. Aluoja,, J. Liivamägi, L. Mehilane and V. Vasar. "Characteristic Traits of Anthropometry in 17-18 Year old Schoolboys of Tartu." Papers on Anthropology VII (1997).

Lintsi M. and H. Kaarma. "Growth of Estonian seventeen-year-old boys during the last Two Centuries." Economics and Human Biology 4 (2006) 1: 89–103.

Littlewood, R. A. "Physical anthropology of the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea." Anthropological studies in the eastern highlands of New Guinea 2 (1972).

Lobsiger-Dellenbach, Marquerite. "Contribution a l'études anthropologique de l'Afrique occidentale francaise (colonie du Niger)." Archive Suisses d'Anthropologie Génerale 16 (1951) 1. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

López, Juan Severino. "La Estatura Masculina en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires." Anales del Instituto Étnico Nacional 3 (1950): 113-38. Ministerio del Interior. Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Lopez-Alonso, Moramay and Raul P. Condey. "The Ups and Downs of Mexican Economic Growth: the Biological Standard of Living and Inequality 1870-1950." Economics and Human biology 1 (2003) 2: 169-186.

Lorentz, H.A. Nova Guinea : résultats des expéditions scientifiques à la Nouvelle Guinée. Leiden: Brill, 1923.

Lundman, Bertil. "Über die fortgesetzte Zunahme der Körperhöhe in Schweden 1926 bis 1936." Zeitschrift für Rassenkunde 9 (1939).

Mackeprang, E. Statistikens Terori. I. Anthropometri. Kobenhavn: G. E. C. Gads Forlag, 1923.

Malcolm, L.W.G. "Notes on the Physical Anthropology of certain West African Tribes." Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien 55 (1925).

Manolis, S., A. Neroutsos and C. Zafeiratos. "Secular changes in body formation of greek students." Human Evolution 10 (1995) 3: 199-204.

Manzel, Kerstin and Linda Twrdek. "The Seed of Abundance and Misery Peruvian Living Standards from the Early Republican Period to the End of the Guano Era." Essays on Human Capital in Latin America (2010).

Martin, Rudolf. Die Inlandstämme der malayischen Halbinsel. Jena: Verlag von Gustav Fischer, 1905.

Martínez-Carrion, José M. "Stature, Welfare, and Economic Growth in Nineteenth -Century Spain: The Case of Murcia." In Stature, living standards and economic development : essays in anthropometric history, edited by J. Komlos. Chicago: Ill. University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Martínez-Carrion, José M. El nivel de vida en la España rural. Siglos XVIIIXX. Alicante: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alicante, 2002.

Martínez-Carrion, Jose M. and Juan J.Perez-Castejon. "Height and Standards of Living during the Industrialization of Spain: the Case of Elche." European Review of Economic History 2 (1998) 2: 201-230.

Matsumura. "On the cephalic index and stature of the Japanese and their local differences." J Fak Sci Imp Univ Tokyo Sec 1 (1925): 1-312.

Maynard, G. D. and G. A. Turner. "Anthropological notes on Bantu Natives from Portuguese East Africa." Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research (1914).

Mazumdar, S. K.. "A Biometric Study on the Tribes of North-Western Himalayan Region." Anthropological Survey of India (1976).

Meineke, Lisa. "Italien." Diploma Thesis, Tuebingen, 2008.

Meisel, Adolfo and Margarita Vega. "The biological standard of living (and ist convergence) in Colombia, 1870–2003 - A tropical success story." Economics and Human Biology 5 (2007): 100–122.

Mense. "Anthropologie der Völker vom Mittleren Kongo" Zeitschrift für Ethnologie (1886/1887): 624-680.

Meredith, Howard V. "Worldwide Somatic Comparisons among Contemporary Human Groups of Adult Females." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 34 (1971): 89.132.

Mesa, Maria Soleuad, Vicente Fuster, Angeles Sánchez-Andrés and Dolores Marrodán. "Secular Changes in Stature and Biacromial and Bicristal Diameters of Young Adult Spanish Males." American Journal of Human Biology 5 (1993): 705-709.

Miklashevskaia, Natasa N. "Growth and development in high altitude regions of Southern Kirghiza, U.S.S.R." Miami, Fla.: Field Research Projects, 1973.

Mironov, Boris. "New Approaches to Old Problems: The Well-Being of the Population of Russia from 1821 to 1910 as Measured by Physical Stature." Slavic Review 58 (1999) 1: 1-26.

Mironov, Boris. "Living Standards in Soviet Russia under Stalin: on the Data of the Stature of the Russian Population." Conference Paper Economics and Human Biology (2004a).

Mironov, Boris. "The Nutrition Standard of Life in the Soviet Russia under Stalin on the Anthropometric Data." In The Economic History. A Yearbook. Moscow: ROSSPEN (2004b): 565-588.

Mironov, Boris. "Data Set on Russian Heights." provided by email (2006). On the Details, see Mironov 2004, 2008 and his Anthropometric History of Russia.

Mironov, Boris and Brian A'Hearn. "Russian Living Standards under the Tsars: Anthropometric Evidence from the Volga." Journal of Economic History 68 (2008): 900-929.

Miszkiewicz, Brunon. Anthropologische Struktur der Mazedonischen Bevölkerung. Wroclaw, 1961.

Mokyr, J. and O. Grada. "The Heights of the British and the Irish c. 1800 - 1815: Evidence from Recruits to the East India Company's Army." In Stature, living standards and economic development: essays in anthropometric history, edited by John Komlos. Chicago, Ill. University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Mokyr, J. and O. Grada. "Height and Health in the United Kingdom 1815-1860: Evidence from the East India Company Army." Explorations in Economic History 33 (1996) 2: 141-168.

Monasterio, Leonardo M. and Mateus Signorini. "As condicoes de vida dos Gauchos entre 1889-1920: uma analise anthropometrica." Economia, Selecta, Brasília (DF) 9 (2008) 4: 111–126.

Montero, Hector Garcia. "Antropometría y niveles de vida en el Madrid rural, 1837-1915." Historia Agraria 47 (2009): 91-124.

Moradi, Alexander. "Towards an Objective Account of Nutrition and Health in Colonial Kenya: A Study of Stature in African Army Recruits and Civilians, 1880-1980." Journal of Economic History 69 (2009) 3: 719-754.

Morgan, S. L. "Chinese Stature and Health Surveys of Adult Employees during the 20th Century." Conference Paper Economics and Human Biology (2003).

Morgan, S. L. "Economic growth and the biological standard of living in China, 1880–1930." Economics and Human Biology 2 (2004): 197–218.

Morgan, S. L. "Height, health and welfare in South China over the past two centuries." Working Paper for "The Third International Conference on Economics and Human Biology, Strasbourg, France, June 22-24, 2006".

Morgan, S. and Liu. "Was Japanese Colonialism Good for the Welfare of Taiwanese? Stature and the Standard of Living.2 The China Quarterly 192 (2007): 990-1013.

Murray, John E. "Standards of the Present for People of the Past: Height, Weight, and Mortality among Men of Amherst College, 1834-1949." The Journal of Economic History 57 (1997) 3: 585-606.

Musaiger, A. O. and Al-Mannai, M. A. "Weight, height, body mass index and prevalence of obesity among the adult population in Bahrain." Annals of Human Biology 28 (2001) 3: 346-350.

Nicholas, Stephen. Data Set Friendly Provided by Email (2009). On the Background see Nicholas Whitwell de Souza 1997.

Nicholas, Stephen and Richard Steckel. "Heights and Living Standards of English Workers During the Early Years of Industrialisation, 1770-1815." Journal of Economic History 51 (1991): 937-57.

Nickul, Karl. "Einige Körpermaße finnischer Wehrpflichtiger; Suomalaisen Tiedeakatemian." Annales Academiae Scientarum Fennicae 25 (1927), Helsinki.

Nummela, Ilkka. Pätkä Vai Ei? Suomalaisen Pituuskasvun Historiaa. Jyväskylä: Kansi, 2000.

Nurse, G.T. Height and History in Malawi. Zomba, Malawi: Government Press, 1969.

Oezer, Basak Koca. "Secular Trend in Body Height and Weight of Turkish Adults." Anthropological Science 116 (2008) 3: 191-199.

Olds, Kelly B. "The biological standard of living in Taiwan under Japanese occupation." Economics and Human Biology 1 (2003): 187-206.

Olivier, G. "La stature des français en 1990.2 Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris 3 (1991) 1: 145-150.

Olivier, G. and G. Devine. "Données nouvelles sur la stature et la corpulence en France." Cahiers d'anthropologie et biométrie humaine 3 (1985) 2: 111-123.

Orr, J. B. and J. L. Gilks. The Physique and Helath of Two African Tribes. London, 1931.

Oschinsky, L. The Racial Affinities of the Baganda and other Bantu Tribes of British East Africa. Cambridge, 1954.

Oshanin, L. V. "Anthropological composition of the population of Central Asia : and the ethnogenesis of its peoples." Russian translation series of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 2 (1964a).

Oshanin, L. V. "Anthropological composition of the population of Central Asia : and the ethnogenesis of its peoples." Russian translation series of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 3 (1964b).

Oxley, Deborah. "Living Standards of Women in Prefamine Ireland." Social Science History 28 (2004) 2: 271-296.

Padez, C. "Secular Trend in Portugal." Journal of Human Ecology 22 (2007) 1: 15-22.

Padez, C. and F. Johnston. "Secular trends in male adult height 1904-1996 in relation to place of residence and parent's educational level in Portugal." Annals of Human Biology 26 (1999) 3: 287–298.

Paissel, W. E. "Materialien zur Anthropologie der Tarantschen" Archiv fuer Anthropologie XXVI (1901).

Pak, Sunyoung. "The biological standard of living in the two Koreas." Economics & Human Biology 2 (2004): 510-521.

Pak, Sunyoung, Daniel Schwekendiek and Hee Kyoung Kim. "Height and Living Standards in North Korea, 1930s-1980s." Economic History Review (2010).

Pales Léon. "Raciologie comparative des populations de l'A. O. F." Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, X° Série, Tome 3 fascicules 1(1952) 2: 3-39.

Pales Léon and M. Tassin de Saint-Péreuse. "Raciologie comparative des populations de l'A. O. F." Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris, X° Série. Tome 4 fascicule 3 (1953) 4: 185-497.

Pales, Léon and C. Chippaux. "Contribution a l'etude de la stature chez les indigenes de Madagascar." Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris 4 (1943) 4: 54-65.

Papadimitriou, Anastasios et al. "Secular growth changes in the Hellenic population in the twentieth century." Hormones 1 (2002) 4: 245-250.

Pearl, Raymond. "Biometrical Studies on Man: I. Variation and Correlation in Brain-Weight." Biometrika 4 (1905) 1/2: 13-104.

Pineau, J.C. "La stature en France depuis un siècle: évolution générale et régionale." Bulletins et Mémoires de la Société d'anthropologie de Paris 5 (1993) 1: 257-268.

Pöch, H. "Beiträge zur Anthropologie der ukrainischn Wolhynier." Mitteilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft Wien 56 (1926).

Polish Acad. of Sciences in Warszawa. Publications of the second Arabic-Polish anthropological expedition. Warshaw/Cairo, 1961.

Powys, A.O. "Data for the Problem of Evolution in Man. Anthropometric Data from Australia." Biometrika 1 (1901) 1: 30-49.

Prazuck, T., A. Fisch, E. Pichard, and Y. Sidibe. "Lack of Secular Change in Male Adult Stature in Rural Mali." American Journal of physical Anthropology 75 (1901): 471-475.

Puccioni, Nello. "Anthropologia e Etnografia della genti della Somalia." Antropometria, Bologna 1 (1931).

Quiroga, Gloria V. "Height Evolution in Spain, 1893-1954. An Analysis by Regions and Professions." In The Biological Standard of Living in Comparative Perspective, edited by John Komlos and Jörg Baten. Stuttgart (1998): 359-383.

Ramon-Munoz, Josep-Maria. "Bienestar biológico y crecimiento agrario en la Cataluña rural,1840-1936." (2009)

Radlauer, Curt. "Anthropologische Studien an Somali." Archiv für Anthropologie XIII (1915).

Relethford, John H. and Francis C. Lees. "The Effects of Aging and Secular Trend on Adult Stature in Rural Western Ireland." American Journal of physical Anthropology 55 (1981): 81-88.

Relethford, John H. "The Effects of Aging and Secular Change in Rural Western Ireland." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 55 (1981): 81-88.

Risley, Herbert H. "Anthropometric Data from Burma." Ethnographic Survey of India, Office of the superintendent, Government Printing, Calcutta, India, 1906.

Risley, Herbert. "The People of India." Edited by W. Crooke. Delhi: Oriental Books Repr. Co., 1969.

Roberts, D. F. "The Cretans. A geographical analysis of some aspects of their physical anthropology." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 84 (1954) 1/2: 145-157.

Roberts, D. F. "Contribuzione alla etnologia die "Pre-Niloti": i Mabaan a paragone die Niloti." Rivista di Antropologia 44 (1957): 317-324.

Rosenbaum, S. "100 Years of Heights and Weights." Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 151 (1988): 276-309.

Rubalcava, Luis and Graciela Teruel. "User’s Guide for the Mexican Family Life Survey First Wave." (2006).

Ruelle, E. "Notes anthropologiques, ethnographiques et sociologiques sur quelques populations noires du 2e territoire militaire." L'Anthropologie 45 (1904): 519-62, 657-703.

Russell, Marcia. "Parent-Child and Sibling-Sibling correlations of height and weight in a rural Guatemalan Population of preschool children." Human Biology 48 (1976) 3: 501.

Sabatini, Arturo. "Anthropologie der Tébu von Kufra." Zeitschrift fuer Rassenkunde 3 (1936).

Salvatore, Ricardo. "Stature, Nutrition, and Regional Convergence: The Argentine Northwest in the Twentieth Century." Social Science History 28 (2004a) 2: 231-248.

Salvatore, Ricardo. "Stature decline and recovery in a food-rich export economy: Argentina 1900–1934." EEH 41 (2004b): 233-255.

Salvatore, Ricardo. "Heights, nutrition and well-being in Argentina, ca. 1850–1950. Preliminary results." Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History 25 (2007) 1: 53–86.

Salvatore, Ricardo and Jörg Baten. "A Most Difficult Case of Estimation: Argentinian Heights, 1770-1840." In The Biological Standard of Living in Comparative Perspective, edited by John Komlos and Jörg Baten. Stuttgart (1998): 90-96.

Sandberg,Lars G. and Richard H. Steckel. "Heights and economic history: the Swedish case." Annals of Human Biology 14 (1987) 2: 101 – 109.

Sandberg, Lars and Richard Steckel. "Was Industrialization Hazardous to Your Health? Not in Sweden!" In Health and Welfare during Industrialization, edited by Richard Steckel and Roderick Floud. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, (1997): 127-160.

Sanna, E.; G. Floris and G. G. Cosseddu. "Secular trend in height in Sardinian conscripts drafted from 1879-1883 to 1983-1986." Anthropologischer Anzeiger 51 (1993): 225-232.

Santos David, J.H. "Height growth of melanodermic natives in Northeastern Lunda (Angola)." South African Journal of Medical Science. 37 (1972) 3: 49-60.

Sapounaki-Dracaki, Lydia. "Heights and Nutritonal Status in Greece.” In The Biological Standard of Living in Comparative Perspective, edited by John Komlos and Jörg Baten. Stuttgart (1998): 408-412.

Sasse, J. "Zur Anthropometrie der Bewohner der holländisch-friesischen Insel Terschelling." Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Anthropologie 18 (1914).

Schebesta, Paul. Die Negrito Asiens, Band I. Wien: St. Gabriel Verlag, 1952.

Schebesta, P. and V. Lebzelter. "Anthropology of the Central African pygmies in the Belgian CongoM." Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts, Prague (1933).

Scheiber, S.H. "Untersuchungen über den mittleren Wuchs der Menschen in Ungarn." Arch. für Arthr. 8 (1881): 233-267.

Schellong, O. "Beiträge zur Anthropologie der Papuas." Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie 23 (1891).

Schreider, E. "Les variations raciales et sexuelles du tronc humain." L´ Anthropologie 58 (1950).

Schultze, Leonhard. "Zur Kenntnis des Körpers der Hottentotten und Buschmänner." Denkschriften der Medizinisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Gesellschaft zu Jena 17 (1928).

Seiner, Franz. "Beobachtungen und Messungen an Buschleuten." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 44 (1928).

Seligmann, C.G. "The Physical Characters of the Nuba of Kordofan." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 40 (1910).

Seltzer, Carl. "The Racial Characteristics of Syrians and Armenians." Papers of the Peabody Museum of american Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University 13 (1936) 3.

Seric, Denis. "Konvergenz und Divergenz des biologischen Lebensstandards in Afrika, vom späten 19. bis Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts." Diploma Thesis, Tuebingen, 2007.

Shanklin, William M. "Anthropometry of Syrian males." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 68 (1938): 379-414.

Shay, T. "The Level of Living in Japan, 1885-1938: New Evidence." In Stature, Living Standards, and Economic Development. Essays in anthropometric History, edited by John Komlos. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press (1994): 173-204.

Shirokogoroff, S. M. "Anthropology of Northern China." Royal Asiatic Society 2 (1968).

Silvertoinen, Karri, Eero Lahelma, Olle Lundberg and Ossi Rahkonen. "Body height, birth cohort and social background in Finland and Sweden." The European Journal of Public Health 11 (2001) 2: 124-129.

Singh, Raghbir. "Somatometric study of the Punjabi Hindu Khatri (male) with special emphasis on growth (cross-sectional) and relationship between arm girth and body weigth measurements." Edited by Henry Field. Miami, Fla.: Field Research Projects, 1972.

Sirajuddin, Shaik Mohamed. Human biology of the Chenchus of Andhra Pradesh : a demo-morpho-genetic study / S. M. Sirajuddin. Calcutta: Anthropological Survey of India, 1993.

Skaric-Juric, Tatjana, Emil Ginsburg, Eugene Kobyliansky, Ida Malkin, Nina Smolej Narancic and Pavao Rudan. "Complex Segregation Analysis of Body Height, Weight and BMI in Pedigree Data from Middle Dalmatia, Croatia." Coll. Antropol. 27 (2003) 1: 135–149.

Sobral, Francisco. "Secular Changes in Stature in Southern Portugal between 1930 and 1980 According to Conscript Data." Human Biology 62 (1990) 4: 491.

Stanisev, D. "Somatomerische Tabellen der mittleren jährlichen Werte von 57 Körpermerkmalen bei 3- bis 18-jährigen Jungen und Mädchen und bei im Mittel 23-jährigen Männern und Frauen der bulgarischen Stadt Plovdiv." Folia Medica Tomus 12 (1970).

Steckel, R.H. and Donald R. Haurin. "Health and Nutrition in the American Midwest: Evidence from Height of Ohio National Guardsmen, 1850-1910." In Stature, living standards and economic development : essays in anthropometric history, edited by John Komlos. University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Stefancic, M. and T. Tomazo-Ravnik. "Fifty-two years of secular trend in Ljubljana school children." In Secular growth changes in Europe, edited by E. B. Bodzsár and C. Susanne. Budapest: Eötvös Univ. Press, 1998.

Stayt, Hugh A. "Africa:The Bavenda." American Anthropologist 34 (1931) 3: 522-524.

Stegl, Mojgan and Jörg Baten. "Data Set on Middle East Heights." (2008). On the Background see Stegl and Baten 2009.

Stegl, Mojgan and Jörg Baten. "Tall and Shrinking Muslims, Short and Growing Europeans: The Long-Run Welfare Development of the Middle East, 1840-1980." Explorations in Economic History 46 (2009).

Stoev, Racho and Yordan Yordanov. "Secular Trend in Bulgaria." In Secular Growth Changes in Europe, edited by B. E. Bodzár and C. Susanne. Budapest: Eötvos Univ. Press, (1998): 65-73.

Stolz, Yvonne. "The Biological Standard of Living in Angola and Guinea-Bissau, 1890-1940." University of Tuebingen Working Paper, 2008.

Stolz, Yvonne, Jörg Baten and Jaime Reis. "The Biological Standard of Living in Portugal, 1720-1980." (2009)

Strauss, John and Duncan Thomas. "Health, Nutrition and Development." Journal of Economic Literature 36 (1998) 2: 766-817.

Strouhal, Eugen "Anthropometry of Egyptian Nubians." In Physical Anthropometry of European Populations, edited by I. Schwidetzky, B. Chiarelli and O. Necrasov, 1980.

Stuhlmann and Simon. "Anthropologische Aufnahmen des Herrn Stuhlmann und Simon aus Ost-Africa." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 27 (1895).

Sukkar, M.Y. "Skinfold thickness and body fat in adult Fur men and women of Western Sudan." Human Biology 48 (1976): 315–321.

Sunder, Marco. "The Making of Giants in a Welfare State: The Norwegian Experience in the 20th Century.” Economics and Human Biology 1 (2003).

Susanne, C. "Comparative Biometrical Study of Stature and Weight of Italian Migrants in Belgium." American Journal of Physical Anthropology 50 (1979) 3: 349 - 355.

Talbot, P. Amaury. "Measurements of Nkokolle, Cross River, Southern Nigeria." Man 13 (1913): 201-202.

Talbot, P. Amaury. "Notes on the Anthropometry of Some Central Sudan Tribes." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 46 (1916): 173-182.

Talbot, P. Amaury and H. Mulhall. The Physical Anthropology of Southern Nigeria. A Biometric Study in Statistical Method. Cambridge University Press, 1962.

Thieme, Frederick P. "The Puerto Rican Population. A Study in Human Biology." Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan 13 (1959).

Thomas, Bertram. Arabia Felix - Across the empty Quarter of Arabia. London, 1932.

Tobias, P.V. "On the increasing stature of the Bushmen." Anthropos 57 (1962): 801–810.

Tobias, P.V. "Growth and stature in South African populations." In The Human Biology of Environmental Change, edited by D. J. M. Vorster. Blantyre, Malawi Meeting: International Biological Programme - Human Adaptability, (1972): 96–104.

Torun, Benjamin, Aryeh D. Stein, Dirk Schroeder, Ruben Grajeda , Andrea Conlisk, Monica Rodriguez, Humberto Mendez and Reynaldo Martorell. "Rural-to-urban migration and cardiovascular disease risk factors in young Guatemalan adults." International Journal of Epidemiology 31 (2002): 218-226.

Trevor, J. C. "The Physical Characters of the Sandawe." The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 77 (1947) 1: 61-78.

Twarog, Sophia. "Heights and Living Standards in Germany, 1850-1939: The Case of Württemberg." In Health and Welfare during Industrialization, edited by R Steckel and R. Floud. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Twiesselmann, F. Development biometrique de I. enfant a I'adulte: etude de 12 mesures corporelles et de 16 mesures céphaliques chez 14.299 écoliers bruxellois âgés de 3 à 25 ans. Bruxelles: Presses Universitaires de Bruxelles, 1969.

Twrdek, Linda and Jörg Baten. "Selectivity of Argentina’s Immigrants." University of Tübingen Working Paper (2010).

Twrdek, Linda and Kerstin Manzel. "The Seed of Abundance and Misery. Peruvian Living Standards from the Early Republican Period to the End of the Guano Era." University of Tuebingen Working Paper (2010).

U.S. Department of Health. "NHANES Survey 1976-80." (1976).

Udjus, Ludvig Gudmund. "Anthropological Changes in Norwegian Men in the Twentieth Century." Univeritetsforlagets Trykningssentral, 1964.

Ujfalvy, Eugen Karl von. Aus dem westlichen Himalaya. Erlebnisse und Forschungen. Leipzig: F.A. Brockhaus, 1884.

Uruguay. "A report by the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense." (1973).

Valaoras, V. G. "The standing height and weight of Greek pupils during the 2nd World War." Proc. Acad. Athens (1944): 140-151.

Valenzuela, C. Y. and A. Avendaño. "Antropometría y maduración sexual de escolares de un área de Santiago de Chile / Anthropometry and sexual maturation of students in an area of Santiago de Chile Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana." (1979).

Van De Ginste, Fernand. "Anthropometric Study of the Bapende and Basuku of the Belgian Congo." American journal of Physical Anthropology 4 (1946) 2: 125-152.

Van Wieringen, J. C. Secular changes of growth. Leiden: Netherlands Institute for Preventive Medicine TNO, 1972.

Vildes, Janis. "Materiali par lībiešu antropoloģiju. Acta Universitatis Latviensis 11 (1924).

Villarejos, Victor M. et al. "Heights and Weights of Children in Urban and Rural Costa Rica." The Journal of Tropical Pediatrics and Environmental Child Health 17 (1971) 1.

Virchow, R. "Zur Anthropologie der Westafrikaner, besonders der Togo-Stämme." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 23 (1971).

Virchow, R. "Die altpreussische Bevölkerung, namentlich Letten und Litauer, sowie deren Häuser." Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 2 (1923).

Waaler, Schiotz. "Körpergröße, Gewicht und sportliche Leistungskraft norwegischer Rekruten." Anthropologischer Anzeiger (1932).

Waddell. "The Tribes of the Brahmaputra Valley." Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 69 (1900) 3.

Waldhauer, Ferdinand. Zur Anthropologie der Liven. Dorpat: v. Schnakenburgs L. u. T—Anstalt, 1879.

Wastl. "Beiträge zur Anthropologie der Negrito von Ost-Luzon." Anthropos 52 (1957).

Watanabe, S., S. Kondo and E. Matsunaga. Human Adaptability Volume 2. Anthropological and Genetic Studies on the Japanese. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press, 1975.

Webb, Elisabeth A., Diana Kuh, Andrzej Pajak, Ruzena Kubinova, Sofia Malyutina and Martin Bobak. "Estimation of secular trends in adult height, and childhood socioeconomic circumstances in three Eastern European populations." Economics & Human Biology 6 (2008) 2: 228-236.

Weber, G., H. Seidler, H. Wilfing and G. Hauser. "Secular change in height in Austria: an effect of population stratification?." Annals of Human Biology 22 (1995) 4: 277 – 288.

Weinberg, Richard. Vaterländisch-anthropologische Studien: Körpergröße estnischer Rekruten. Tartu, 1902.

Weisbach. Körpermessungen verschiedener Menschenrassen. Berlin.Verlag: von Wiegandt, Hemppel & Parey, 1878.

Weisbach. "Die Zigeuner." Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien 19 (1889).

Weisbach. "Die Slovenen." Mitteilungen der Anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien 33 (1903).

Weissenburg. "Die autochthone Bevölkerung Palästinas in anthropologischer Beziehung." Zeitschrift für Demographie und Statistik der Juden 5 (1909) 9.

Wells. "Physical Measurements of Northern Bushmen." Man 52 (1952): 53-56.

Weninger. Eine morphologisch-anthropologische Studie: durchgeführt an 100 westafrikanischen Negern als Beitrag zur Anthropologie von Afrika. Anthropologische Gesellschaft Wien, 1927.

Weninger. Armenier: Ein Beitrag zur Anthropologie der Kaukasusvölker. Wien: Rohrer, 1951.

Weninger and Weninger. Anthropologische Beobachtungen an Georgiern (Transkaukasien). Wien: Rohrer, 1959.

Whitwell, Greg, Christine de Souza and Stephen Nicholas. "Height, Health, and Economic Growth in Australia, 1860-1940." In Health and Welfare During Industrialization, edited by Richard Steckel and Roderick Floud. Chicago: U Chicago Press, (1997): 379-422.

WHO/UNESCO Internet Pages

Woenno-Stat. Sbornik, 1871.

Wolf, L. "Anthropologische Forschungen im Congo-Gebiet." Zeitschrift fuer Ethnologie (1886): 24-33.

Wu. "How severe was the Great Depression? Evidence from the Pittburgh Region." In Stature, living standards and economic development: essays in anthropometric history, edited by John Komlos. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

Caribbean

Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2013 (27)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2012 (34)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2013 (20)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2013 (40)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2013 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2013 (38)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.