Abstract

Infant mortality was large component of overall mortailtiy, because children in their first year of life are particularly vulnerable. Moreover, the variable can serve as an indicator of the disease environment, when it comes to assessing the proximate determinants of height

Author(s)

Baten, Joerg, University of Tuebingen.; Blum, Mathias, Technical University Munich (formerly University of Tuebingen)

Production date

2011-12-28

Variable(s)

Infant mortality

Keywords

Height, Anthropometrics, Living Standard.Demographics, Infant Mortality

Time period

1810 -2000. All data refer to the decadal average (1810 means 1810-19 etc)

Geographical coverage

Worldwide

Methodologies used for data collection and processing

Reconstruction of infant mortality by decade using a variety of different sources, but mainly the data set of Aboubarb, M.R. and Kimball, A.L. (2007). See also the text below

Period of collection

See references

Data collectors

Joerg Baten, Mathias Blum, and many colleagues from around the world


As good as possible, but counter-checking and improvement welcome

General references

Aboubarb, M.R. and A.L.. Kimball. “A New Dataset on Infant Mortality

Rates, 1816-2002.” Journal of Peace Research 44 (2007):743.

Chesnais, Jean-Claude. La Transition Démographique. Paris: PUF, 1986.

Hammel, Eugene A. and Aaron Gullickson. “Maternal Mortality as an

Indicator of the Stadard of Living on Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century

Slavonia.” In Living Standards in the Past- New Perspectives on

Well-Being in Asia and Europe, edited by Allen, Robert C., Tommy

Bengtsson and Martin Dribe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Lewis, Milton and Roy McLeod. “A workingman's paradise? Reflections on

urban mortality in colonial Australia 1860-1900.” Medical History 31

(1987) 4.

Mitchell, Brian R. International Historical Statistics: The Americas and

Australasia. London: Macmillan, 1983.

Mitchell, Brian R. International Historical Statistics: European

Historical Statistics 1750-1975. London: Mac Millan, 1980.

Mitchell, B Brian R. International Historical Statistics: Africa and

Asia. London: Macmillan, 1982.

Schellekens, Jona. “Economic Change and Infant Mortality in England,

1580-1837.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 32 (2001) 1: 1-13.

Vallin, Jacques. “La mortalité infantile dans le monde: Evolution

depuis 1950.” Population 31 (1976) 4/5: 801.

World Bank. “Development Indicators.” Washington, DC: World Bank,

1994-1995.

United Nations Statistics Division. HYPERLINK "http://data.un.org/"

http://data.un.org/ , last accessed December 18th, 2011.

Statistics New Zealand. HYPERLINK "http://www.stats.govt.nz/"

http://www.stats.govt.nz/ , last accessed December 18th, 2011.

Mortality Database. HYPERLINK "http://www.mortality.org/"

http://www.mortality.org/ , last accessed December 18th, 2011.

Feeney, Griffith. “Taiwan Demographic Transition, 2011”. HYPERLINK

"http://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=griffith%20feeney%20infant%20mort

ality%20taiwan&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CDUQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fold.demogr

apher.com%2Fpopulation-growth%2Ftaiwan-demographic-transition.xls&ei=0Vr

zTveHM47ZsgbO-OjKDw&usg=AFQjCNGC3uJ4_EbCg8_sowqFexI_mbn3uQ&cad=rja"

http://www.google.de/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=griffith%20feeney%20infant%20morta

lity%20taiwan&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CDUQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fold.demogra

pher.com%2Fpopulation-growth%2Ftaiwan-demographic-transition.xls&ei=0Vrz

TveHM47ZsgbO-OjKDw&usg=AFQjCNGC3uJ4_EbCg8_sowqFexI_mbn3uQ&cad=rja , last

accessed December 18th, 2011.

United Nations Commission for Africa. HYPERLINK

"http://www.uneca.org/" http://www.uneca.org/ , last accessed December

18th, 2011.

Europe

Western Europe

Austria 1980 1910 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Austria 1900 1820 Mitchell (1980-83)

Belgium 1960 1830 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

France 1980 1830 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

France

1820 Chaisnais (1986)

Germany 1980 1830 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Netherlands 1980 1820 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Netherlands

1830 Chaisnais (1986)

Switzerland 1930 1870 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Northern Europe

Denmark 1980 1830 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Estonia 1980 1960 World Bank

Estonia

1970 mortality.org

Finland 1860 1810 Chaisnais (1986)

Finland 1980 1910 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Finland

1900 Mitchell (1980-83)

Ireland 1900 1870 Mitchell (1980-83)

Ireland 1980 1920 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Latvia

1940 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Lithuania

1940 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Norway

1830 Chaisnais (1986)

Norway 1890 1840 Mitchell (1980-83)

Norway 1980 1900 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Sweden 1980 1830 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1820 1810

Schellekens (2001)

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1980 1830 Ahoubarb

and Kimball (2007)

Southern Europe

Albania

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Croatia 1860 1810 Hammel Gullickson (2005)

Greece 1980 1920 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Italy 1980 1860 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Portugal 1980 1900 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Slovenia

1970 World Bank

Spain 1980 1850 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Eastern Europe

Belarus

1980 World Bank

Bulgaria 1950 1930 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Czech Republic 1970 1910 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Czech Republic

1900 Chaisnais (1986)

Czechoslovakia (until 1993) 1960 1880 World Bank

Hungary

1850 Chaisnais (1986)

Hungary 1970 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Hungary

1860 Mitchell (1980-83)

Poland

1910 Chaisnais (1986)

Poland 1980 1930 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Republic of Moldova 1980 1970 http://data.un.org

Romania

1860 Mitchell (1980-83)

Romania 2000 1870 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Russian Federation 2000 1860 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Ukraine

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Americas

Northern America

Canada 1980 1920 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Canada 1910 1900 Mitchell (1980-83)

United States of America 1990 1850 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Latin America and the Caribbean

Caribbean

Cuba 1950 1900 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Dominican Republic 2000 1940 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Haiti 1980 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Jamaica 1940 1890 Mitchell (1980-83)

Jamaica 1990 1980 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Puerto Rico 1930 1910 Mitchell (1980-83)

Trinidad and Tobago 2000 1980 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Central America

Costa Rica 1980 1940 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

El Salvador 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Guatemala 2000 1910 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Honduras 2000 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Mexico 1990 1890 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Nicaragua 2000 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Panama 2000 1980 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

South America

Argentina 1990 1860 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2000 1930 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Brazil 1990 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Brazil 1940 1930 Chaisnais (1986)

Brazil 1920 1900 Mitchell (1980-83)

Chile 2000 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Colombia 2000 1900 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Ecuador

1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Guyana 2000 1970 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Paraguay 1990 1930 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Peru 1990 1940 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Oceania

Uruguay 1990 1930 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Australia

1910 Mitchell (1980-83)

Australia

1900 Chaisnais (1986)

Australia 1890 1860 Lewis (1987)

Australia 1970 1920 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

New Zealand

1930 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

New Zealand

1860 http://www.stats.govt.nz/

New Zealand 1890 1870 Mitchell (1980-83)

Melanesia

Papua New Guinea

1980 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Asia

Southern Asia

Afghanistan 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Bangladesh 2000 1980 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Bangladesh

1960 World Bank

India 1980 1940 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

India 1930 1910 Mitchell (1980-83)

Iran (Islamic Republic of) 2000 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Nepal 2000 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Pakistan 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Sri Lanka 2000 1980 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Sri Lanka

1920 Mitchell (1980-83)

Eastern Asia

China 1980 1920 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Japan 1980 1880 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Korea (North) 1940 1930 Chaisnais (1986)

Korea (North) 1980 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Republic of Korea

1940 Chaisnais (1986)

Republic of Korea 1980 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Taiwan 1940 1920 www.gfeeney.com

Taiwan 1970 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Cambodia 2000 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

South-Eastern Asia

Indonesia (until 1999) 1990 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Lao People's Democratic Republic 2000 1980 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Malaysia

1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Malaysia

1930 Mitchell (1980-83)

Myanmar 2000 1940 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Philippines 1930 1900 Mitchell (1980-83)

Philippines 1990 1940 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Singapore 2000 1970 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Thailand 1990 1930 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Viet Nam 2000 1980 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Western Asia

Armenia

1980 World Bank

Armenia 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Azerbaijan

1980 World Bank

Azerbaijan

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Georgia

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Iraq 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Israel

1930 Mitchell (1980-83)

Israel

1940 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Jordan 2000 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Kuwait

1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Oman

1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Saudi Arabia 1990 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Syrian Arab Republic 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Turkey 1990 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Yemen

1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Yemen

1980 World Bank

Central Asia

Kyrgyzstan

1970 World Bank

Tajikistan 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Uzbekistan

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Africa

Northern Africa

Algeria 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Egypt 1920 1910 Mitchell (1980-83)

Egypt 2000 1940 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Morocco 2000 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Sudan (until 2011) 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Tunisia 1990 1970 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Western Africa

Benin 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Burkina Faso 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Cote d'Ivoire 1990 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Gambia

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Ghana 2000 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Guinea 1980 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Guinea-Bissau

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Liberia 1980 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Mali 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Mauritania 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Niger

1950 www.uneca.org

Niger 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Nigeria

1950 www.uneca.org

Nigeria 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Senegal

1950 www.uneca.org

Senegal 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Sierra Leone 2000 1970 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Togo

1950 www.uneca.org

Togo 1990 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Middle Africa

Angola

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Cameroon 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Central African Republic

1950 Vallin (1976)

Central African Republic 1990 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Chad 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Congo 1980 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Democratic Republic of the Congo

1950 http://data.un.org

Democratic Republic of the Congo 1980 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Equatorial Guinea

1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Gabon 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Southern Africa

Botswana 2000 1980 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Lesotho

1950 www.uneca.org

Lesotho 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Namibia 1980 1960 World Bank

Namibia

1970 www.uneca.org

Namibia 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

South Africa

1910 Mitchell (1980-83)

South Africa 1990 1920 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Swaziland 1980 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Eastern Africa

Burundi

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Comoros

1970 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Eritrea 2000 1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Ethiopia (from 1993) 2000 1950 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Kenya 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Madagascar 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Malawi 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Mauritius

1990 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Mozambique 2000 1970 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Mozambique

1960 World Bank

Rwanda 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Somalia

2000 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Uganda 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

United Republic of Tanzania

1950 www.uneca.org

United Republic of Tanzania 1990 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Zambia

1950 www.uneca.org

Zambia 2000 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Zimbabwe 1990 1960 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Zimbabwe 1950 1900 Mitchell (1980-83)

Venezuela 2000 1900 Ahoubarb and Kimball (2007)

Caribbean

Anguilla[No Data]

Antigua and Barbuda1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Aruba[No Data]

Bahamas1500 (5)-2013 (23)

Barbados1500 (5)-2013 (27)

Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba[No Data]

British Virgin Islands[No Data]

Cayman Islands[No Data]

Cuba1500 (8)-2012 (34)

Curaçao[No Data]

Dominica1500 (5)-2013 (20)

Dominican Republic1500 (6)-2013 (40)

Grenada1500 (5)-2013 (21)

Guadeloupe[No Data]

Haiti1500 (6)-2013 (36)

Jamaica1500 (6)-2013 (38)

Martinique[No Data]

Montserrat[No Data]

In 2010, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) awarded a subsidy to the Clio Infra project, of which Jan Luiten van Zanden was the main applicant and which is hosted by the International Institute of Social History (IISH). Clio Infra has set up a number of interconnected databases containing worldwide data on social, economic, and institutional indicators for the past five centuries, with special attention to the past 200 years. These indicators allow research into long-term development of worldwide economic growth and inequality.

Global inequality is one of the key problems of the contemporary world. Some countries have (recently) become wealthy, other countries have remained poor. New theoretical developments in economics - such as new institutional economics, new economic geography, and new growth theory - and the rise of global economic and social history require such processes to be studied on a worldwide scale. Clio Infra provides datasets for the most important indicators. Economic and social historians from around the world have been working together in thematic collaboratories, in order to collect and share their knowledge concerning the relevant indicators of economic performance and its causes. The collected data have been standardized, harmonized, and stored for future use. New indicators to study inequality have been developed. The datasets are accessible through the Clio Infra portal which also offers possibilities for visualization of the data. Clio Infra offers the opportunity to greatly enhance our understanding of the origins, causes and character of the process of global inequality.